The wine tradition is well established in Argentina. The first vines were planted in the 16th century and the country boasts the highest individual consumption of wine from the subcontinent. Since the 1990s, Argentina has undergone a rapid and impressive restructuring of its vineyard, the largest in South America. Traditional varieties have declined in favor of quality grape varieties and vineyards with high potential have been replanted at high altitude sites. The country has attracted many foreign investors, motivated by the potential of the country and low production costs. Results: Exports surged and Argentina introduced its powerful, fruit-filled red wines to the world at altitudes of over 900 m. The vineyard is located on the high plateaus of the eastern Piedmont of the Andes for nearly 2400 km long, from Salta in the north to the more temperate regions of Patagonia. The best red wines from Argentina come from malbec, an emblematic grape variety that takes advantage of the large temperature ranges between very sunny days and cool nights to reach full maturity.